Liebmann-Revolt Chapter 5

Liebmann-Revolt Chapter 5

Liebmann begins this chapter by briefly going over some of the history available of Pueblos. He states that after the retreat of Otermin, the written record of the Pueblo people ends. There are oral histories, but they were not shared with outsiders. Because of this, historians must then turn to archaeology to try and figure out their past. As he did in his introduction, Liebmann mentions that they Jemez Province is a good spot for archaeological study as there have only been a few settlements in the area he was studying. He then goes on to talk about each site he studied.

First he discusses what caused Jemez to make his first move from Wolatowa. This was caused by a message that said the revolt had begun. This began a burning of the Christian images in their village. Then he received world that the Spaniards were heading towards their village, they decided to burn the village completely to the ground before moving on to destroy anything they felt was associated with the Spaniards and their effects on their territory. They then moved north to a mesa where they would be better able to protect themselves.

The name of this new settlement was Patokwa. It was built on a mesa with their pre-hispanic tradition at heart. Oral traditions tell historians that the mesa is where the group of Pueblos settled after burning down their other settlement. Additionally, this where the Spaniards said they found the Jemez when they later returned to New Mexico. Liebmann also discusses how they found evidence of another village on the mesa as well such as pieces of pottery, stone tools, and mounds that point towards roomblocks. The main components of this new mesa villages are the plazas. Liebmann describes that mesa, with these plazas, looking like an island. He also spends some times describing the environment of the mesa. Located in a canyon, there are mountains on either side along with a river and much vegetation.

Liebmann then discusses how he went about mapping this mesa village using noninvasive archaeology. They used an electronic surveying tool known as a total station to try and map a topographical map of the mesa. They created a 20×20 grid and worked through each grid point mapping the village. They used garden stakes to maps the grid and a rope to orient themselves and to ensure they followed the grid and collect all the data. Liebmann describes this a long process as the attention to detail needed meant that they only worked through 3-4 units each day. he also briefly discusses when they went back tot he mesa to study the pottery there. They studied pottery both from the Jemez village and the earlier 1300s village.

The next section descibes the layout of Patokwa. The plazas were built in a linear format, which they linked the they style of plazas built by the Eastern Pueblos. He also concluded that the Jemez Pueblos moved to the mesa together because of the planning that went into the villages construction. Oral traditions states that the plaza were the first thing planned in a new village, this can be seen in Patokwa as everything in the village seems to be built around the plazas. The placement of the kivas also leads Liebmann to believe that the placement of the plazas was very intentional.  He then tries to find out the population of the village by looking at the number of rooms and the number of people who occupied them. Liebmann found this by looking at the number of rooms and the floor space available in these rooms. It is important to know that it is difficult to tell a villages population from archaeology, but an estimation can be reached.

The desire for defense was a primary factor in the location and construction of the village. The plazas were centered and had inward facing rooms. They had originally moved to this village to get away from their previous easily accessible village and to have a village that is easier to defend. Liebmann discusses how the village was originally built to defend the Jemez from the Spaniards, they also faced other enemies as well such as nomadic tribes. They were not always trying to defend themselves, they did have some trading relationships with other nearby tribes and some of the nomadic neighbors. There was also some problems with factionalism among the Jemez people, whoever this was common among the Pueblo as a whole.

The group that split went on to form a village name Boletsakwa. This was settled on a higher steeper mesa than Patokwa. This mesa allowed the Pueblos to better able to defend them selves than even the previous mesa. It was surrounded by trees. They built strong defensible walls to protect themselves from raids. Liebmann’s book proves that archaeology can be used to analyze territories to find out about some of their history even when texts may not be available.


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